Agreement in Dzongkha: Why it`s Important for Clarity and Understanding

Dzongkha, the national language of Bhutan, is a complex and rich language with a unique grammar system. One essential aspect of Dzongkha grammar is agreement, which involves the matching of nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs in gender, number, and case.

Agreement in Dzongkha is critical for effective communication, as it helps to convey meaning, avoid confusion, and ensure clarity. This article will discuss the importance of agreement in Dzongkha and its various forms.

Gender Agreement

One critical aspect of agreement in Dzongkha is gender agreement. Dzongkha has two genders, masculine and feminine, and it is essential to match the noun and adjective gender to ensure clarity.

For example, when talking about a boy, the noun “bu” (བུ་) is masculine, and the adjective “ramo” (རམོ་) also needs to be masculine. So, the sentence “bu ngey rikcha ramo” (བུ་ངེས་རིག་ཆ་རམོ་) means “the small boy is playing.”

Number Agreement

Number agreement is another important aspect of Dzongkha grammar. Dzongkha has four number forms: singular, dual, trial, and plural, and it is necessary to match the noun and verb number to show the quantity.

For example, the sentence “dey chhu chhu legnaylo” (དེ་ཆུ་ཆུ་ལེགས་ནས་ལས་) means “the mice are running away.” In this sentence, the noun “chhu” (ཆུ་) is plural, and the verb “legnaylo” (ལེགས་ནས་ལས་) also needs to be plural.

Case Agreement

Case agreement is the agreement between nouns, adjectives, or pronouns in different grammatical cases. Dzongkha has six cases: nominative, accusative, dative, ablative, allative, and locative.

For example, the sentence “ngo ngey thangka chhaza” (ངོ་ངེས་ཐང་ཀ་ཆ་བ་) means “I am buying a thangka painting.” In this sentence, the noun “thangka” (ཐང་ཀ་) is in the accusative case because it is the object of the verb “chhaza” (ཆ་བ་).


Agreement in Dzongkha is essential for effective communication, as it helps to convey meaning, avoid confusion, and ensure clarity. Gender, number, and case agreement are the primary forms of agreement in Dzongkha, and it is necessary to match the noun, verb, adjective, or pronoun elements correctly to maintain grammatical accuracy.

As a professional, it is essential to keep in mind the rules of agreement in Dzongkha when optimizing content for search engines. By adhering to the rules of agreement, we can create high-quality, readable content that resonates with Dzongkha speakers and supports their language and culture.